Multimodal train refers to two trains with different starting or ending stations that connect or separate at an intermediate station.

That is, two trains with the same departure station separate at an intermediate station and go to their respective destinations, or two trains with different departure stations connect at an intermediate station and go to the same destination.

In the case of the latter, the train that arrives first connects and waits for a train to go with it for a certain amount of time.

▲ KTX-Sancheon stops at Cheonan-Asan Station.


It is because of operational efficiency that two trains are connected together and operated as one train.


It is the biggest advantage in terms of efficient train operation because it treats a single blocked section (a section secured for train safety) between a station and a station or between a signal and a signal as one train.

Since the engineer works at an intermediate station that connects or separates two trains, labor cost savings can be considered, but I don’t think it’s a big merit in that there must be a transporter for separation and connection work.


Trains that can be operated as multimodal trains are all trains except for the 1st generation KTX with 20 cars per train. I just don’t do it because I don’t need to operate it as a multimodal train.

In the past, there was a time when PP-type Saemaeul diesel trains also operated as combined trains.


▲ On the reservation inquiry screen of Let’s Korail (, the train number is different but the departure time is the same.

In the case of the A complex train, the upper train 401 covers cars 1 to 8, and the lower train 801 covers cars 11 to 18.

In other words, car No. 18 is the frontmost car next to the power car, and car No. 1 is the rearmost car.

Therefore, when separated from Dongdaegu Station, the 801 train leaves for Pohang first, followed by the 401 train for Masan.


Combined train and heavy train are sometimes used interchangeably. However, it is true that the complex train is called heavy duty operation, but the heavy duty operation is not necessarily a complex train.


Heavy- duty operation is used when two or more trains are operated by connecting them instead of just two trains, or when two or more locomotives are operated under a single train number by operating them under the overall control method instead of the untransported (no fire locomotive). Therefore, it should be said that running by connecting two trains in anticipation of a congestion of passengers on New Year’s Day, Chuseok, summer vacation season, etc. is called heavy driving.


▲ There are 7 locomotives that have been sent back to the Gimcheon Locomotive Office as figurative locomotives.


When two or more trains or two or more trains are operated as one train, two or more power cars are inevitably needed.

At this time, one power car controls the remaining power cars, and this is called the overall control method or total control operation.


An atomized locomotive is a locomotive that has lost its ability to tow a passenger car or a freight car, which is the function of a power car. When such an atomized locomotive is returned to another place for inspection or repair, it is called “ returning the atomized locomotive”.


▲ The new KTX-Sancheon of the Honam and Jeolla lines before they arrive at Iksan Station and are separated

The new KTX-Sancheon is often called Wine Sancheon, Borasancheon, and KTX-Sancheon 2. The new KTX, which has not yet had a train name engraved on it, is impressive.


▲ Combined train bound for Masan and Pohang arriving at Dongdaegu Station. Officials are out to separate the two trains.

High-speed trains connect automatically. The relevant staff only checks whether the connection is working without any problems.


▲ The Sunrise Express left Tokyo last night and arrived at Okayama Station the next morning, waiting for separation.

Sunrise Express is a combined train operated by Sunrise Seto and Sunrise Izumo.

Seto runs between Tokyo and Takamatsu, and Izumo runs between Tokyo and Izumo. After separating at Okayama Station, they either head to their respective destinations or connect and head to the same destination (Tokyo).


▲ Shinkansen MAX-TOKI passing through Omiya Station in Japan

Even in the case of Japan Railways, multimodal trains or heavy train operation are common. As above, even the two-story Shinkansen high-speed train operates as a multimodal train.


▲ Limited Express Midori and Huis Ten Boss at Hakata Station in Japan

It runs together to Haiki Station, and Limited Express Midori goes to Sasebo Station, and Huis Ten Bosch is a combined train to Huis Ten Bosch Station. Although the colors are different, both trains are 783 series trains belonging to JR Kyushu, so it will not be difficult to drive them in heavy mode.